3rd Summer School

Adaptation to climate change of agricultural water management sector in BiH

July 3-7, 2023 | Trebinje, Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Browse and download contents from SMARTWATER 3rd Summer School

July 3-7, 2023 | Trebinje, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Program and info

Summer school focused on the “Adaptation to climate change of agricultural water management sector in BiH

July 3-7, 2023 | Trebinje, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Download here

Day 1

Mihajlo Marković, Đurađ Hajder (UNI-BL), SMARTWATER implementation, state of art.

In this presentation, the basic info about H2020 SMARTWATER project is presented for all participants to the third Summer school (WP2). Also, main finished activities within the project are explained. The ongoing activities are mentioned with some basic suggestions for the improvement of work. The future activities, until the official end of the project, are emphasized. The feedback from partners in the implementation process is very important.
There is a need for prolongation of project duration and the official request will be sent. Project tasks and reports are done with no major issues.

Author Mihajlo Marković – UNSA, Đurađ Hajder – UNI-BL

Download here

Keyword: H2020, SMARTWATER, implementation, tasks, reports, future activities

Željko Vaško (UNI-BL), Is it worth irrigating? Approaches to the financial evaluation of investments in irrigation.

The presentation raises the question of whether it is worth irrigating from an economic or financial point of view. Introduces the concepts of investment and operating costs of irrigation and quantification of the benefits of irrigation. It elaborates several approaches to the financial evaluation of the investment in irrigation. Static approach based on one representative year and static approach based on the entire the investment project lifetime and dynamic approach based on discounting the cash inflow and cash outflow of the entire irrigation investment project. Participants will have the opportunity to do two practical
exercises, one with the application of a static approach to the evaluation of costs and incomes of a project with and without irrigation and the other with discounting the net cashflow of an irrigation investment project over a twenty-year period of its lifetime..

Author Željko Vaško- UNI-BL

Download here

Keyword: agricultural water management, economics, static approach, dynamic approach,
irrigation investment

Nataša Čereković (UNI-BL), Plasticity of blackcurrant in a changing climate: focus on water efficiency.

The presentation deals with drought stress tolerance of North Sea region for blackcurrant cultivars during flower induction and flower initiation and their ability to recover following
drought stress. The main focus was on water use efficiency studied on four different blackcurrant cultivars. This was investigated by looking at plant water relations, flowering, root growth, and gene expression. Therefore, the presentation deals with the physiological and molecular responses of blackcurrants to drought stress. The virtual laboratory served to explain to the students the most important measurements in the phenotyping activities, for plant physiological response to drought stress through work in greenhouse conditions and molecular response through sampling in greenhouse and work in laboratory.

AuthorNataša Čereković  UNI-BL

Download here

Keyword: drought stress, blackcurrant, water use efficiency, physiological response, molecular
response

Day 2

Irrigation modernization as a tool to improve the resilience to climate change of irrigated agriculture: The Spanish case

The lecture presents some traits of climate change in the Mediterranean, in order to show some of the expected consequences and the unknowns regarding irrigated agriculture. The general structure of irrigation in Mediterranean countries will be presented, introducing the deleterious effect of land use changes on water availability in the last decades. The lecture will continue with some concepts about water accounting, such as consumptive and non-consumptive water use, water conservation and water saving. In the next section, these concepts are applied to
irrigation modernization from the theoretical and practical points of view. Finally, measures will be discussed to facilitate adaptation of modern irrigated areas to climate change, and the key challenges of these areas will be introduced from where many of are related to climate change.

Download here

Author: Enrique Playán – CSIC

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, key challenges, Mediterranean, land use changes. water accounting, water conservation, water saving, irrigation modernization

Theoretical framework; Climate change impacts on rainfed maize: the adoption of irrigation as an adaptation measure.

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to agricultural production and food security. Thus, the main emission scenarios are presented, the GCM and RCM climate models are described, and the use of climate change scenarios data in impact studies is addressed. The main methodologies for climate change impacts assessment and the definition of adaptation measures are presented. Finally, some examples of impact studies for maize carried out in southern Portugal are presented.

Download here

Author: João Rolim – ISA

Keywords: climate change, emission scenarios; climate models, impacts assessment, adaptation
measures, Portugal.

Practical application Climate change impacts on rainfed maize: the adoption of irrigation as an adaptation measure.

This presentation aims to explain, in a practical way, how future climate series can be created from the available data in DOI: 10.24381/cds.bc91edc3 and how the impacts of climate change can be assessed through modeling. In this presentation a soil water balance model – ISAREG – is used as an example. To conclude, adaptation measures that should be studied in this context are presented.

Download here

Author: Daniela Soares – ISA

Keywords: climate change, climate scenarios, soil-water-balance model, ISAREG; adaptation measures

Knowledge transfer to SMARTWATER / BiH practical application Climate change impacts on rainfed maize: the adoption of irrigation as an adaptation measure.

Coping with climate change impacts on rainfed maize in BiH can benefit from the analysis undergoing for Portuguese conditions and some of the irrigation practices used in Portugal can be adopted as an adaptation measure for BiH. Other measures can focus on strategies addressing new varieties, different crop cycles and agronomic practices.”

Download here

Author: Teresa A. Paço – ISA

Keywords: climate change, rainfed agriculture, maize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Portugal,
adaptation measures

The SIAR network of agro meteorological stations in Spain - a tool for climate change recording and adaptation.

The lecture will start with a discussion on the different purposes used to build meteorological networks. The lecture will then focus on agrometeorological networks, mostly applied to assess farmers on crop water requirements. The discussion will lead to the pioneer network in the world: CIMIS in California. The lecture will become practical, since the CIMIS portal will be explored together with the students, discussing CIMIS accomplishments, identifying stations and gathering data. The lecture will then move on to the SIAR network in Spain. A similar approach will be used, presenting the portal and exploring it with the students. The lecture will be completed with a practicum in which students will be asked to retrieve CIMIS data from two locations in California, and to compare the results.

Download here

Author: Enrique Playán – CSIC

Keywords:agrometeorological networks, crop water requirements, CIMIS, SIAR, UAVs

Enhancing water productivity through Bluleaf® digital platform.

Agriculture 4.0 is transforming agriculture by integrating digital technologies and data-driven solutions to boost production, optimize the use of resources, and enhance sustainability. In this context, water productivity plays a crucial role, especially in the Mediterranean region, where the scarcity of water, variability in climatic conditions, and soil degradation pose significant obstacles to crop production. The presentation introduces the Bluleaf® digital platform, a cloudbased Decision Support System (DSS) specifically designed for irrigation management and optimization. Participants will learn about the various applications of Bluleaf® for enhancing water productivity.

Download here

Author: Giulio D’ Amato – SYS

Keywords: Agriculture 4.0, digital technologies, data-driven solutions, Decision Support System, Bluleaf®

Day 2

Irrigation modernization as a tool to improve the resilience to climate change of irrigated agriculture: The Spanish case

The lecture presents some traits of climate change in the Mediterranean, in order to show some of the expected consequences and the unknowns regarding irrigated agriculture. The general structure of irrigation in Mediterranean countries will be presented, introducing the deleterious effect of land use changes on water availability in the last decades. The lecture will continue with some concepts about water accounting, such as consumptive and non-consumptive water use, water conservation and water saving. In the next section, these concepts are applied to
irrigation modernization from the theoretical and practical points of view. Finally, measures will be discussed to facilitate adaptation of modern irrigated areas to climate change, and the key challenges of these areas will be introduced from where many of are related to climate change.

Download here

Author: Enrique Playán – CSIC

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, key challenges, Mediterranean, land use changes. water accounting, water conservation, water saving, irrigation modernization

Theoretical framework; Climate change impacts on rainfed maize: the adoption of irrigation as an adaptation measure.

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to agricultural production and food security. Thus, the main emission scenarios are presented, the GCM and RCM climate models are described, and the use of climate change scenarios data in impact studies is addressed. The main methodologies for climate change impacts assessment and the definition of adaptation measures are presented. Finally, some examples of impact studies for maize carried out in southern Portugal are presented.

Download here

Author: João Rolim – ISA

Keywords: climate change, emission scenarios; climate models, impacts assessment, adaptation
measures, Portugal.

Practical application Climate change impacts on rainfed maize: the adoption of irrigation as an adaptation measure.
This presentation aims to explain, in a practical way, how future climate series can be created from the available data in DOI: 10.24381/cds.bc91edc3 and how the impacts of climate change can be assessed through modeling. In this presentation a soil water balance model – ISAREG – is used as an example. To conclude, adaptation measures that should be studied in this context are presented.

Download here

Author: Daniela Soares – ISA

Keywords: climate change, climate scenarios, soil-water-balance model, ISAREG; adaptation measures

Knowledge transfer to SMARTWATER / BiH practical application Climate change impacts on rainfed maize: the adoption of irrigation as an adaptation measure.
Coping with climate change impacts on rainfed maize in BiH can benefit from the analysis undergoing for Portuguese conditions and some of the irrigation practices used in Portugal can be adopted as an adaptation measure for BiH. Other measures can focus on strategies addressing new varieties, different crop cycles and agronomic practices.”

Download here

Author: Teresa A. Paço – ISA

Keywords: climate change, rainfed agriculture, maize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Portugal,
adaptation measures

The SIAR network of agro meteorological stations in Spain - a tool for climate change recording and adaptation.

The lecture will start with a discussion on the different purposes used to build meteorological networks. The lecture will then focus on agrometeorological networks, mostly applied to assess farmers on crop water requirements. The discussion will lead to the pioneer network in the world: CIMIS in California. The lecture will become practical, since the CIMIS portal will be explored together with the students, discussing CIMIS accomplishments, identifying stations and gathering data. The lecture will then move on to the SIAR network in Spain. A similar approach will be used, presenting the portal and exploring it with the students. The lecture will be completed with a practicum in which students will be asked to retrieve CIMIS data from two locations in California, and to compare the results.

Download here

Author: Enrique Playán – CSIC

Keywords:agrometeorological networks, crop water requirements, CIMIS, SIAR, UAVs

Enhancing water productivity through Bluleaf® digital platform.

Agriculture 4.0 is transforming agriculture by integrating digital technologies and data-driven solutions to boost production, optimize the use of resources, and enhance sustainability. In this context, water productivity plays a crucial role, especially in the Mediterranean region, where the scarcity of water, variability in climatic conditions, and soil degradation pose significant obstacles to crop production. The presentation introduces the Bluleaf® digital platform, a cloudbased Decision Support System (DSS) specifically designed for irrigation management and optimization. Participants will learn about the various applications of Bluleaf® for enhancing water productivity.

Download here

Author: Giulio D’ Amato – SYS

Keywords: Agriculture 4.0, digital technologies, data-driven solutions, Decision Support System, Bluleaf®

Day 3

Joint experimental studies at Aleksandrovac (BiH)

This presentation contains an overview of all activities and measurements that were carried out during the first year of research at both studied locations, Aleksandrovac and Butmir. The main emphasis is on the influence of the climate change in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the crop evapotranspiration, grain yield and water use efficiency of the studied maize hybrid (BL43). The special attention was paid on the drought stress in the particular crop development stages such as flowering time.

Download here

Author: Nataša Čereković – UNI-BL

Keywords:climate change, Bosnia and Herzegovina, water use efficiency, maize, crop growth stages, flowering

Application of remote sensing and open source tools for the analysis of biological characteristics of corn

Remote sensing involves detecting and monitoring the physical features of an area by measuring reflected and emitted radiation from a distance (usually from satellites or drones). Special cameras are used to capture remote sensing images that help researchers “sense” things on Earth. The application of remote sensing in agriculture can support the development of agricultural practices in the face of various challenges by providing information about the condition of crops at different levels throughout the season. For this experiment, we used images from Sentinel 2 taken during the growing season of corn. The images were downloaded from the Copernicus open-source hub (free of charge) and analysed using the programs ESA SNAP and QGIS software. Some vegetation indices were measured on the ground and compared with the values obtained from the satellite images. Some of them are Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Basal Crop Coefficient (Kcb). The results show that satellite imagery can be used for these purposes with the help of a correction factor.

Download here

Author: Zuhdija Omerović – UNSA

Keywords: climate change, emission scenarios; climate models, impacts assessment, adaptation
measures, Portugal.

The effect of application of indirect evapotranspiration calculation methods for drip irrigation on maize yield

In this presentation, the analysis of water consumption for maize evapotranspiration (ETm), indirect methods were compared using reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop coefficients (Kc) with calculation bioclimatic procedure using hydrophytothermal indices. Reference evapotranspiration it was calculated using the Hargreaves method used by the Republic of Srpska Hydrometeorological Institute. An experiment with maize irrigation using drip was carried out in 2017 on the experimental field of the economy of the Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Srpska, Banja Luka on three different hybrids: BL 43, NS-4030 (FAO 400) and NS 6030 (FAO 660). The differences in the values of water used for maize evapotranspiration (ETm) were calculated. Achieved yields of maize within the same and different FAO ripening group, provide information on the considerable influence of genotype and adaptability of the selected hybrids to habitat conditions, so research needs to be continued and expanded in order to be able to recommend the most suitable hybrid within the defined FAO ripening group.

Download here

Author:Dejan Simić – Agricultural Institute of Republic of Srpska

Keywords: maize, evapotranspiration, hydrophytothermal indices, genotype, adaptability

MSc thesis at CIHEAM-IAMB, progress.

Agricultural production in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) in the last few years has been facing many different problems such as lack of qualified labour, insufficient investment in agriculture, obsolescence of agricultural systems, uncontrolled use of resources (water, fertilizers, and energy) as well as increasing difficulties related to climate change and agroecology (temperature/precipitation extremes, drought, floods and intensive degradation of agricultural land and water resources). Furthermore, agricultural systems in BiH are such that there is no precise assessment of inputs and outputs for the successful production of many crops (including maize and other cereals), and the lack of relevant research data on this topic is present. Furthermore, in BiH, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), eco-efficiency concept, and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are rarely used in crop production. Alternatively, no studies on how irrigation can reduce the impact of crop water stress on maize biomass and yield in different pedo-climatic regions of BiH. A detailed inventory of inputs and outputs in maize production in BiH is lacking and through this research the first time such a research will be performed.

Download here

Author: Ivana Mitrović – UNI-BL

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Cost, eco-efficiency concept, Life Cycle Assessment

MSc thesis at CIHEAM-IAMB, progress

The focus point of this presentation centres around a comprehensive analysis of climate change impact on evapotranspiration, irrigation requirements, and crop yield within the specific pedoclimatic conditions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Firstly, the study’s objectives are presented, involving the assessment of climate change effects on agricultural water management, crop growth, trend analysis of key weather parameters, and proposition of adaptation measures. The presentation continues by introducing the study location, offering general information, and explaining the reason behind selecting the regions of Bihac, Livno, and Tuzla for this study. Furthermore, the agricultural sector and the specific crops chosen for examination are discussed. Key findings from the literature review relevant to the study are presented, followed by the problem statement that presents the necessity of this study. Furthermore, the attained results and the utilized methodology are explained, encompassing the observed changes in mean monthly and annual air temperature, precipitation, and humidity, insolation, and wind speed parameters for the three chosen study locations. At the end, outlining the forthcoming tasks and the current status of the study. The methodology used to obtain forthcoming results is explained, with the aim of identifying changes in stress levels, evapotranspiration, irrigation requirements, net irrigation requirements, and growing degree days.

Download here

Author: Alen Pavlović – CIHEAM-IAMB

Keywords: climate change, evapotranspiration, irrigation requirements, crop yield